Thyroid cancer in children

Introduction: Thyroid carcinomas in children represents 1-1.5% of all tumors before the age of 15 years. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma is 2-3 times more in girls than boys & commonly occurs between 7-12 years of age. Radiation to the neck in the childhood is established causative factor in development of thyroid cancer.

Clinical presentation:
1. anterior cervical lymphadenopathy
2. asymptomatic neck mass
3. vocal card palsy (rare)
4. breathlessness or dysphagia because of compression on trachea/ esophagus (rare)
5. Family h/o thyroid cancer (Especially in Medullary cancer)

Main Types:
1. Papillary (most common in children)
2.Follicular
3. Medullary
4. Anaplastic

Physical Examination:
1. Firm painless thyroid nodule in one or both lobes
2. may be associated with lymphadenpathy
3. signs of compression or immobility due to fixation is rare but can be present
4. hoarseness of voice due to vocal cord palsy is again rare in children

Diagnosis:
1. T3, T4, TSH ( Euthyroid)
2. Antithyroid antibodies (to rule out thyroidities)
3. Thyroglobulin levels (for postoperative monitoring)
4. Calcitonin (medullary carcinoma)
5. Ultrasonography of neck
6. Thyroid scan- cold nodules
7. needle biopsy or excision biopsy
8. Chest x-ray/ CT Chest to rule out metastasis

Treatment:
1. Surgery- is the mainstay of treatment
Total thyroidectomy
2. Radioiodine- For the cancer spread outside the thyroid gland
3. Chemotherapy containing low dose Doxorubicin & external irradiation are reserved for anaplastic carcinoma or recurrence of differentiated carcinomas.

Prognosis: Prognosis of differentiated carcinomas is very good & more than 90% survival has been reported.

3 comments:

Ruth said...

I recently came across your blog and have been reading along. I thought I would leave my first comment. I don't know what to say except that I have enjoyed reading. Nice blog. I will keep visiting this blog very often.

Ruth


http://www.infrared-sauna-spot.info

ThomasJr said...

We should take good care of our kids. They are God's gift to us, I am also asking my Alternative cancer treatments center what are the tips that they can give me about this.

Cameron VSJ said...

Hi,

I have a quick question about your blog, would you mind emailing me when you get a chance?

Thanks,

Cameron

cameronvsj(at)gmail.com