There are variety of tumors arising from kidney in children but the most common is Wilms' tumor named after Karl Max Wilms who is the first person to review the literature & described the unique properties/ So it is named after him. It is also called as nephroblastoma. It occurs in children upto 6 years with peak at 3 years.It is extremely uncommon after 6 yrs.
1. mass or Lump or distension of abdomen ( most common)
2. abdominal pain.
3. hematuria (blood in the urine or smoky urine)
5. refusal of feeds
7. weight loss
The following investigations are proposed for whole work up when one suspect the Wilms tumor.
1. CT scan of abdomen & CT guided FNAC of tumor
2. X-ray chest
3. Comlete Blood Counts
4. Biochem profile
Treatment for wilms' tumor is multidisciplinary
It includes surgery, chemotherapy & radiotherapy
Surgery- includes radical nephrectomy with lymph node sampling
Chemotherapy- combination of drugs like Vincristine / Actinomycin- D/ Cyclophosphamide.
Radiotherapy- is given to the flank in advanced disease or to the chest if there are metastasis.
Prognosis:This is one of the most curable cancer. the cure rate is more than 80% with multimodality treatment.
Other tumors of kidney in childhood
1. Clear cell sarcoma
2. Rhabdoid tumor
3. Renal cell carcinoma
4. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor
5. Infantile osteoid producing kidney tumor.